Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer in Men( The Physicians’ Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial)
Through December 31, 2008, a total of 15 594 deaths (40.2%) were identified through the State Health Registry of Iowa and the National Death Index. In multivariable adjusted proportional hazards regression models, the use of multivitamins (hazard ratio,1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10; absolute risk increase, 2.4%), vitamin B6 (1.10; 1.01-1.21; 4.1%), folic acid (1.15; 1.00- 1.32; 5.9%),iron (1.10; 1.03-1.17; 3.9%), magnesium (1.08; 1.01-1.15; 3.6%), zinc (1.08; 1.01-1.15; 3.0%), and copper (1.45; 1.20-1.75; 18.0%) were associated with increased risk of total mortality when compared with corresponding nonuse.
Use of calcium was inversely related (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.94; absolute risk reduction, 3.8%). Findings for iron and calcium were replicated in separate, shorter-term analyses (10- year, 6-year, and 4-year follow-up), each with approximately 15% of the original participants had died, starting in 1986, 1997, and 2004. In older women, several commonly used dietary vitamin and mineral supplements may be associated with increased total mortality risk; this association is strongest with supplemental iron. In contrast to the findings of many studies, calcium is associated with decreased risk.
Writer:Jaakko Mursu, PhD
DOI : 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.445